Immune-endocrine interactions related to a high risk of infections in chronic metabolic diseases: The role of PPAR gamma.

Affiliation

Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Avenida Brasil, 4365, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Diverse disturbances in immune-endocrine circuitries are involved in the development and aggravation of several chronic metabolic diseases (CMDs), including obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. The chronic inflammatory syndrome observed in CMDs culminates in dysregulated immune responses with low microbial killing efficiency, by means low host innate immune response, and loss of ability to eliminate the pathogens, which results in a high prevalence of infectious diseases, including pneumonia, tuberculosis, and sepsis. Herein, we review evidence pointing out PPARγ as a putative player in immune-endocrine disturbances related to increased risk of infections in CMDs. Cumulated evidence indicates that PPARγ activation modulates host cells to control inflammation during CMDs because of PPARγ agonists have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolutive properties, increasing host ability to eliminate pathogen, modulating hormone production, and restoring glucose and lipid homeostasis. As such, we propose PPARγ as a putative therapeutic adjuvant for patients with CMDs to favor a better infection control.

Keywords

Chronic metabolic diseases,Infectious diseases,Neuroimmunomodulation,PPARγ,