Immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: A review of potential new drugs based on ongoing clinical studies as of 2019.


Unit of Internal Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]


In the latest years, antineoplastic immunotherapy revolutionised the therapeutic landscape in oncology. First shown to be effective in melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma, immune checkpoint inhibitors are now being tested for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Preliminary results have been particularly promising. As a consequence, an increasing number of clinical trials are underway. The role of the immune system in carcinogenesis (with particular reference to tumour escape immune mechanisms), as well as the current immunotherapy trials for HCC in its different clinical scenarios, are the subject of this review. In particular, we aim to provide fresh updates about these novel therapeutic agents which promise to shape the future therapeutic scenario of HCC.


Immune checkpoint inhibitors,Nivolumab,Pembrolizumab,Tremelimumab,