Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have raised numerous concerns in recent years as emerging environmental contaminants. At present, research on environmental contamination by antibiotics focuses on medical, animal husbandry, and aquaculture fields, with few studies on environmental contamination by agricultural antibiotics in the field of plant protection. Wuyiencin is a low toxicity, high efficiency, and broad-spectrum agricultural antibiotic. It has been widely used in agricultural production and it effectively controls crop fungal diseases. In the present study, pot experiments with four soil treatments (A, B, C and D) were set up in a greenhouse to investigate the effect of the application of wuyiencin on the fate of typical ARGs and microbial community. Eight typical ARGs were detected by real-time PCR and the microbial communities were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that wuyiencin neither significantly influenced ARG abundance and absolute gene copy numbers, nor significantly varied microbial community among treatments. Since it only was short-term results, and the detection number of ARGs was limited, whether wuyiencin is safe or not to ecological environment when using for long-term will need further deep research.