Impact of adjuvant lorazepam with granisetron on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.


Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Cancer Center, Kobe Children's Hospital, Kobe, Japan. [Email]


OBJECTIVE : Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) affects quality of life for patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. We aimed to assess the effect of lorazepam with granisetron on CINV in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
METHODS : We reviewed the records of 71 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed ALL who received chemotherapy including vincristine, anthracycline, and systemic steroids between January 2011 and December 2016 in our hospital. The number of chemotherapy cycles reviewed was 164. All patients received granisetron as CINV prophylaxis.
RESULTS : Nausea was observed in 51/71 patients (72%) and 93/164 cycles (57%). Vomiting was observed in 47/71 patients (66%) and 79/164 cycles (48%). Age and gender distribution were not significantly different between patients who received lorazepam at the initiation of the chemotherapy cycle (LZP group, n = 30) and those who did not receive lorazepam (non-LZP group, n = 134). There were no significant differences in the incidence of CIN and CIV between the LZP group and non-LZP group (CIN, 67% vs. 57%, P = 0.31; CIV, 53% vs. 47%, P = 0.98). In multivariate logistic regression, female gender and older age (> 5 years) were significant risk factors for CIV (female, odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-5.0, P = 0.007; older age, OR 2.5, CI 1.3-4.8, P = 0.008).
CONCLUSIONS : We found no beneficial effect of providing lorazepam as adjuvant antiemetic for prevention of CINV in children with ALL.