Impact of the TiO₂ Nanosolution Concentration on Heat Transfer Enhancement of the Twin Impingement Jet of a Heated Aluminum Plate.


Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia. [Email]


Here, the researchers carried out an experimental analysis of the effect of the TiO₂ nanosolution concentration on the heat transfer of the twin jet impingement on an aluminum plate surface. We used three different heat transfer enhancement processes. We considered the TiO₂ nanosolution coat, aluminum plate heat sink, and a twin jet impingement system. We also analyzed several other parameters like the nozzle spacing, nanosolution concentration, and the nozzle-to-plate distance and noted if these parameters could increase the heat transfer rate of the twin jet impingement system on a hot aluminum surface. The researchers prepared different nanosolutions, which consisted of varying concentrations, and coated them on the metal surface. Thereafter, we carried out an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis for determining the structure and the homogeneous surface coating of the nanosolutions. This article also studied the different positions of the twin jets for determining the maximal Nusselt number (Nu). The researchers analyzed all the results and noted that the flow structure of the twin impingement jets at the interference zone was the major issue affecting the increase in the heat transfer rate. The combined influence of the spacing and nanoparticle concentration affected the flow structure, and therefore the heat transfer properties, wherein the Reynolds number (1% by volume concentration) maximally affected the Nusselt number. This improved the performance of various industrial and engineering applications. Hypothesis: Nusselt number was affected by the ratio of the nanoparticle size to the surface roughness. Heat transfer characteristics could be improved if the researchers selected an appropriate impingement system and selected the optimal levels of other factors. The surface coating with the TiO₂ nanosolution also positively affected the heat transfer rate.


Nusselt number,TiO2 nanoparticles,heat transfer,impingement jet,nano coating,

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