Impacts of the heavy metals Cu (II), Zn (II) and Fe (II) on an Anammox system treating synthetic wastewater in low ammonia nitrogen and low temperature: Fe (II) makes a difference.


Henan Collaborative Innovation Center of Environmental Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, School of Material and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450001, China. Electronic address: [Email]


In this study, the impacts of heavy metals (1 mg L-1) on the nitrogen removal, bioactivity of anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) and the microbial community of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process were investigated. It was observed that short-term exposure in Cu (II) and Zn (II) both improved AAOB bioactivity, while long-term exposure significantly lowered the nitrogen removal to 0.218 and 0.302 kg m-3 d-1, when treated the wastewater with 100 mg L-1 nitrogen under 14-16 °C. Fe(II) had slight impact on Anammox in short-term experiment but deeply enhanced nitrogen removal during the long-term contact, and finally increased the that to 0.58 kg m-3 d-1. The impact on Anammox was Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Fe(II). Cu(II) and Zn(II) lowered the share of Candidatus Kuenenia to 3.32% and 3.80%, while Fe(II) improved that to 11.30% from 7.99%. Extracellular polymeric substance in biofilm had prominent iron adsorption capacity, which was the key factor that help AAOB resist Fe(II).


AAOB,Anammox,Cu (II),Fe (II),Nitrogen removal,Zn (II),