For social mammals, recognition of conspecifics and discrimination of each other (social memory) is crucial to living in a stable colony. Here, we investigated whether kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8)-neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB signaling is crucial for social discrimination behavior using the social discrimination three chamber behavioral test. Klk8 knockout mice (NRG1-deactivated mice) exhibited normal social approach but impaired social discrimination. Intraventricular injection of recombinant NRG1177-246 into Klk8 knockout mice reversed this impaired social discrimination. This study reveals that KLK8 is a key regulator of NRG1-ErbB signaling, which contributes to social discrimination behavior.