In vitro susceptibility of urinary Escherichia coli isolates to first- and second-line empirically prescribed oral antimicrobials: CANWARD surveillance study results for Canadian outpatients, 2007-2016.
Escherichia coli isolates (n = 2035) from urine specimens of outpatients presenting to Canadian medical clinics and hospital emergency departments from 2007-2016 were collected as part of the CANWARD surveillance study. Isolate identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) were performed at a central site (Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Canada). AST of first- and second-line oral antimicrobial agents was performed using CLSI methods (M07, 11th ed, 2018); fosfomycin was tested by agar dilution and all other agents by broth microdilution. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were interpreted using CLSI M100 (2018) criteria. Fosfomycin (99.2% of isolates susceptible), nitrofurantoin (97.5%) and cefalexin (93.6%) were the most active agents tested; amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) (85.6%), ciprofloxacin (83.0%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (77.0%) were less active. Annual percentages of isolates positive for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or demonstrating multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes increased from 0.8% (2007) to 10.1% (2016), and from 9.7% (2007) to 16.5% (2016), respectively, whilst the annual frequency of AmpC-positive isolates decreased from a high of 3.2% in 2008 to 0.7% in 2016. The most common MDR phenotype of E. coli was non-susceptibility to AMC, ciprofloxacin, and SXT, accounting for 12.7% (26/205) of all MDR isolates. Rates of susceptibility were higher for fosfomycin than for the five other oral agents tested against ESBL-positive (96.1% susceptible) and MDR (95.1%) isolates and were equal to nitrofurantoin (96.4%) against AmpC-positive isolates. Prudent use of antimicrobials and close monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical uropathogenic E. coli isolates are imperative to help preserve the utility of oral antimicrobials.