Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility fingerprints of Plesiomonas shigelliodes isolates in water samples collected from some freshwater resources in Southwest Nigeria.

Affiliation

Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria; South Africa Medical Research Council, Water Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, South Africa; Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, South Africa. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Plesiomonas shigelloides, is an emerging and significant enteric pathogen in water having implication in both localised and gastrointestinal infections with characteristic of displaying high resistance against commonly used antibiotics. This study evaluated the prevalence of Plesiomonas shigelloides and their antibiogram fingerprints in water sample collected from four rivers in South-western Nigeria. In all, 148 presumptive Plesiomonas shigelloides isolates was recovered from the rivers out of which 66 (44.6%) were confirmed positive for the organism using polymerase chain reaction techniques. Confirmed isolates were evaluated for their antibiogram profiles against a panel of 20 antimicrobials using the disc diffusion method and further screened for relevant antibiotic resistance genes. Resistance of the isolates against the antimicrobials followed the order: sulphamethoxazole (100%), erythromycin (93%), ampicillin (90%), cephalotin (82%), streptomycin (64%), and chloramphenicol (58%), amoxicillin (53%), cefotaxime (50%), tetracycline (49%), neomycin (38%) and trimethoprim + sulphamethoxazole (38%). Conversely, all the isolates were susceptible against netilmicin, and susceptibility against the other antibiotics follows the order: meropenem (94%), gentamicin (88%), imipenem (79%), amikacin (70%), ciprofloxacin (70%), norfloxacin (59%), trimethoprim (56%) and ceftazidine (56%). The multiple antibiotic resistance indices of the organism were higher than the accepted threshold of 0.2. The incidence of 11 antimicrobial resistance determinants were obtained as follows: [sulphonamides; (sulI (18%), sulII (20%), dfr1 (70%), dfr(18) (5%)), [beta-lactams; (ampC 37%)], [tetracyclines; (tetA (78%), tetE (57%)], [phenicols; (catII (16%), cmlA1 (11%)] and [aminoglycosides; (aphA2 (36%) and strA (67%)]. Pearson chi-square exact test revealed positive associations among tetA, tetE, sullI and catII and tetA genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the incidence and antibiogram fingerprint of P. shigelloides in these freshwater resources and we conclude that these rivers are important reservoirs of multiple antimicrobial resistant biotypes of this organism, and consequently a threat to public health.

Keywords

Antimicrobials,Nigeria,Plesiomonas shigelloides,Public health,Resistance,River water,

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