BACKGROUND : Previous study had demonstrated that sestrin2 (Sesn2) expression was increased in human failing heart. Although, the circulating Sesn2 concentrations in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) remains unknown. This study investigated plasma Sesn2 concentrations in patients with CHF and the role between Sesn2 and the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events. METHODS : A total of 80 control subjects and 220 CHF patients were enrolled and the Sesn2 concentrations of each sample were measured. Additionally, the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events in each CHF patient were followed prospectively for 36 months. RESULTS : Increased plasma Sesn2 concentrations were found in CHF patients and gradually increased from New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II to IV. The Sesn2 concentrations were positively correlated with N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) but negatively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in CHF patients. The ROC curve suggested that Sesn2 had a certain value in predicting major adverse cardiac events during CHF patients, although, the predictive role of Sesn2 is not as good as NT-pro BNP. In addition, the multivariate Cox hazard analysis was performed after the CHF patients were divided into 3 groups (low, middle, and high) base on the plasma Sesn2 concentrations category, and the results showed that both high and middle Sesn2 concentrations increased the incidence of major adverse cardiac events when compared with low Sesn2 group. Furthermore, CHF patients with major adverse cardiac events showed higher Sesn2 concentrations when compared with CHF without major adverse cardiac events. The Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed after the CHF patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median Sesn2 concentrations and the results revealed that patients with high Sesn2 concentrations had a higher risk of major adverse cardiac events compared with those with low Sesn2. CONCLUSIONS : Plasma Sesn2 concentrations were increased in CHF patients and positively correlated with the severity of CHF. Increased Sesn2 concentrations significantly increased the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events and suggested poor outcome in CHF patients.