Indoor phthalate concentrations in residences in Shihezi, China: implications for preschool children's exposure and risk assessment.


Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Chemical Engineering of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps/School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, 832003, China. [Email]


Despite the risks associated with phthalate exposure, there are few studies emphasizing preschool children's exposure to phthalates in residences in Northwest China. In this study, seven phthalates from indoor dust samples were measured in 50 residences in Shihezi, China. Preschool children's exposure doses via non-dietary intake were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. Risk assessment was conducted by comparing the simulated exposure dose with benchmarks for reproductive toxicity and cancer specified in Proposition 65 of California. The detection frequencies for all selected phthalates were more than 75%, with the exception of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most principal compound in the dust samples (median = 455 μg/g and 462 μg/g in the bedroom and living room, respectively). The simulation displayed that the median DBP daily intake was 1.5-1.9 μg/day/kg for preschool children in Shihezi, which was considered a high level compared with similar studies around the world. The risk assessment indicated that almost all preschool children face potential reproductive risk due to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure, with medians of hazard index (HI) from 9.6 to 12.4 for all age groups. Therefore, from a children's health perspective, attention should be paid to reducing indoor phthalate pollution and exposure in this area.


Indoor dust,Phthalates,Preschool children,Reproductive toxicity,