Influence of Ammonium Polyphosphate/Lignin Ratio on Thermal and Fire Behavior of Biobased Thermoplastic: The Case of Polyamide 11.


IMT Mines d'Alès, Centre des Matériaux des Mines d'Alès⁻Pôle Matériaux Polymères Avancés, 30100 Alès, France. [Email]


Flame retardancy of polymers is a recurring obligation for many applications. The development trend of biobased materials is no exception to this rule, and solutions of flame retardants from agro-resources give an advantage. Lignin is produced as a waste by-product from some industries, and can be used in the intumescent formation development as a source of carbon combined with an acid source. In this study, the flame retardancy of polyamide 11 (PA) is carried out by extrusion with a kraft lignin (KL) and ammonium polyphosphate (AP). The study of the optimal ratio between the KL and the AP makes it possible to optimize the fire properties as well as to reduce the cost and facilitates the implementation of the blend by a melting process. The properties of thermal decomposition and the fire reaction have been studied by thermogravimetric analyzes, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) and vertical flame spread tests (UL94). KL permits a charring effect delaying thermal degradation and decreases by 66% the peak of heat release rate in comparison with raw PA. The fire reaction of the ternary blends is improved even if KL-AP association does not have a synergy effect. The 25/75 and 33/67 KL/AP ratios in PA give an intumescence behavior under flame exposure.


ammonium polyphosphate,fire reaction,lignin,polyamide 11,thermal decomposition,