Influence of Fixation Methods on Prosthetic Joint Infection Following Primary Total Knee Replacement: Meta-Analysis of Observational Cohort and Randomised Intervention Studies.

Affiliation

National Institute for Health Research Bristol Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust and University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. [Email]

Abstract

The type of fixation used in primary total knee replacement (TKR) may influence the risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess published evidence linking type of fixation (cemented, uncemented, or hybrid) with the risk of PJI following primary TKR. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational cohort studies comparing fixation methods and reporting PJI incidence following primary TKR were identified in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up until November 2018. Summary measures were relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified 32 eligible articles (24 observational studies and 8 RCTs) involving 1,161,292 TKRs. In pooled analysis of observational studies, uncemented fixation was associated with a decreased overall PJI risk when compared with cemented fixation at 0.76 (0.64-0.89). Comparing antibiotic-loaded cemented fixation with plain cement, there was no significant difference in overall PJI risk at 0.95 (0.69-1.31), but PJI risk was increased in the first 6-month postoperative period to 1.65 (1.12-2.43). Limited data from RCTs showed no differences in PJI risk among the fixation types. Observational evidence suggests uncemented fixation may be associated with lower PJI risk in primary TKR when compared with cemented fixation. In the early postoperative period, antibiotic-loaded cemented fixation may be associated with increased PJI risk when compared with plain cement. This may either reflect appropriate selection of higher risk patients for the development of PJI to cemented and antibiotic-loaded cement or may reflect a lower PJI risk in uncemented TKR due to factors such as shorter operative time.

Keywords

antibiotic-loaded cement,cemented,fixation,hybrid,meta-analysis,prosthetic joint infection,total knee replacement,uncemented,

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