Inhalation bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn and speciation of Pb in particulate matter fractions from areas with different pollution characteristics in Henan Province, China.


School of Chemistry and the Environment, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450001, China. Electronic address: [Email]


Windowsill particulate matter (PM) samples were collected from an area near large lead-smelting facilities in Jiyuan (JP), the urban area of Jiyuan (JU) and the peri-urban area of Mianchi (MC) in Henan, China to investigate the concentration and inhalation bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The <10 μm portions of the samples were extracted with simulated lung fluid to assess the in vitro inhalation bioaccessibility. Lower concentrations of heavy metals were found in the MC samples than in the JP and the JU samples. The average concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cu in the portions of the same size are in the order of JP samples > JU samples > MC samples. For Pb, Cd and Zn, the maximum inhalation bioaccessibility fraction values are all found in the MC samples, which ranged 3.87-8.79%, while those of the JP and the JU samples are <2%. The Pb speciation analysis with X-ray absorption spectrometry indicate mineral bound Pb, PbS and Pb3(PO4)2 are the predominant Pb species in the JP samples; for the JU sample, organic bound Pb is the predominant Pb species in the 45-125 μm portion, while mineral bound Pb is the predominant Pb species in the 10-45 μm portion; for the MC samples, organic bound Pb is the predominant Pb species, followed by PbS. The results indicate that there is significant accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn associated with PM in the area near the lead smelter and in the urban area of Jiyuan, especially Pb and Cd, however, the inhalation bioaccessibility of these metals in samples from the lead smelting impacted area is low, this may be due to the higher proportion of less soluble species of the metals in the samples from this area. However, organic matter bound Pb found in some samples has higher bioaccessibility than other Pb species.


Bioaccessibility,Heavy metal,Lead smelting,Lead species,Particulate matter,Simulated lung fluid,Size,

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