Insights on adsorption of carbamazepine onto iron oxide modified diatomaceous earth: Kinetics, isotherms, thermodynamics, and mechanisms.

Affiliation

Kaimosi Friends University College, P.O. Box 385-50309, Kaimosi, Kenya. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

To ameliorate adsorbent recovery by an external magnetic field, naturally occurring diatomaceous earth (DE) was modified with iron-oxide, characterized and applied for adsorption of carbamazepine (CBZ) from synthetic wastewater using batch equilibration method. The fabricated adsorbent was characterized using XRF, XRD, SEM-EDX, FT-IR, BET surface area analysis, VSM and pH of point of zero charge (pHpzc) determination. The adsorption rate was described by the pseudo-first-order (PFO) model suggesting a physisorption controlled rate-determining step. Equilibrium adsorption data were fitted to linear and nonlinear isotherm models, viz Langmuir and Freundlich models, and were best described by Freundlich nonlinear equations implying heterogeneous multilayer adsorption. The best-fitting kinetic and isotherm model was determined using four mathematical error functions. The thermodynamic parameters, namely enthalpy (ΔH = -26.4 kJ mol-1), Gibbs free energy (ΔG = -2.22 kJ mol-1 at 298 K), entropy (ΔS = -34.0 kJ mol-1), indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic, and physical process. The adsorption mechanism is postulated to involve cation-π interactions. Modified diatomaceous earth is a potentially excellent, low-cost, and novel sorbent for CBZ adsorption with 88% removal in 180 min and provides a possible alternative adsorbent for wastewater treatment.

Keywords

Adsorption,Carbamazepine,Diatomaceous earth,Non-linear regression,

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