Insulin receptors in the kidneys in health and disease.


Department of Molecular Medicine and Biotechnology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014, India. [Email]


Insulin is an important hormone that affects various metabolic processes, including kidney function. Impairment in insulin's action leads to insulin resistance in the target tissue. Besides defects in post-receptor insulin signaling, impairment at the receptor level could significantly affect insulin sensitivity of the target tissue. The kidney is a known target of insulin; however, whether the kidney develops "insulin resistance" is debatable. Regulation of the insulin receptor (IR) expression and its function is very well studied in major metabolic tissues like liver, skeletal muscles, and adipose tissue. The physiological relevance of IRs in the kidney has recently begun to be clarified. The credit goes to studies that showed a wide distribution of IR throughout the nephron segments and their reduced expression in the insulin resistance state. Moreover, altered renal and systemic metabolism observed in mice with targeted deletion of the IR from various epithelial cells of the kidney has strengthened this proposition. In this review, we recapitulate the crucial findings from literature that have expanded our knowledge regarding the significance of the renal IR in normal- and insulin-resistance states.


Gluconeogenesis,Insulin receptor,Insulin resistance,Kidney disease,Proteinuria,Renal sodium reabsorption,Systemic blood pressure,