Department of Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Arkin Mental Health and Addiction Treatment Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Jellinek Substance Abuse Treatment Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address: [Email]
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with Substance Use Disorders (SUDs). Standard ADHD pharmacotherapies are not effective in patients with this comorbidity and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has not been tested in this population. This RCT aimed to compare the efficacy of Integrated CBT (CBT/Integrated) directed at adult ADHD and SUD with CBT directed at SUD only (CBT/SUD) in patients with SUD and ADHD (SUD + ADHD).