Wastewater treatment can consume a large amount of energy to meet discharge standards. However, wastewater also contains resources which could be recovered for secondary uses under proper treatment. Hence, the goal of this paper is to review the available green energy and biomass energy that can be utilized in wastewater treatment plants. Comprehensive elucidation of energy-efficient technologies for wastewater treatment plants are revealed. For these energy-efficient technologies, this review provides an introduction and current application status of these technologies as well as key performance indicators for the integration of green energy and energy-efficient technologies. There are several assessment perspectives summarized in the evaluation of the integration of green energy and energy-efficient technologies in wastewater treatment plants. To overcome the challenges in wastewater treatment plants, the Internet of Things (IoT) and green chemistry technologies for the water and energy nexus are proposed. The findings of this review are highly beneficial for the development of green energy and energy-efficient wastewater treatment plants. Future research should investigate the integration of green infrastructure and ecologically advanced treatment technologies to explore the potential benefits and advantages.