Interaction of pseudoephedrine and azithromycin with losartan: Spectroscopic, dissolution and permeation studies.


School of Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. Electronic address: [Email]


This study aims at investigating the potential effect of selected cationic drugs (azithromycin (AZN) and pseudoephedrine sulfate (PSD) on the dissolution profile and intestinal permeation of losartan potassium (LOS) that might occur due to ion pair salt formation. DSC, FT-IR and 1H NMR indicated the formation of ion pair salts between LOS and each of AZN and PSD. Based on NMR chemical shifts calculations, utilizing specialized software, the most likely structures of the salt were proposed and revealed interesting structural features. The obtained ion pair products were shown to have lower aqueous solubilities (water and phosphate buffer pH 6.8) and higher apparent partition coefficient values compared to the parent compound. Neither of the cations affected the dissolution of LOS tablet (Cozaar® 100 mg) in the studied media (HCl pH 1.2 and phosphate buffer pH 6.8). Interestingly, AZN significantly increased the dissolution of LOS in phosphate buffer pH 4.5 (f2 = 33), and an explanation based on distinguished association pattern between AZN and LOS (CH/π) was offered. Employing permeation test across Caco-2 cells monolayer, the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of LOS increased significantly (from 0.9 × 10-5 cm/s to 1.8 × 10-5 cm/s) in the presence of the selected cations. Therefore, while the employed cationic drugs were not shown to form ion pair salts under the in-vitro dissolution conditions, they may still participate in significant in-vivo interaction with LOS.


(CH/π),Caco-2 permeation,Dissolution,Ion pair,Losartan,NMR,