BACKGROUND : Stereotactic needle biopsy provides a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis of intracranial lesions but is limited by inconclusive diagnoses on frozen pathology. For rapid pathology, 5-aminovelunic acid and sodium fluorescein have previously demonstrated potential as diagnostic adjuvants. Stereotactic biopsy with near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores has not been reported. We identified 5 representative cases using NIR fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) administered in a high dose, delayed manner. METHODS : Five patients underwent second window indocyanine green (SWIG)-guided stereotactic biopsy for diagnosis of suspected glioma or tumor recurrence. Up to 5 mg/kg ICG was administered approximately 24 hours prior to surgery. Biopsies were conducted in the standard fashion, targeting regions of suspected tumor using intraoperative frameless navigation. Samples were examined intraoperatively under standard visible light and for fluorescence using conventional NIR imaging platforms. Findings were correlated with frozen and final tumor pathology for all cases. RESULTS : A total of 10 biopsy specimens were obtained. Three did not fluoresce and did not demonstrate tumor on preliminary or final pathology, including a non-gadolinium-enhancing sample taken proximal to the final target. The remaining 7 fluoresced, of which 6 contained tumor and 1 contained necrosis. Fluorescence was also noted in a patient with radiation treatment effect. Overall fluorescence characteristics were highly concordant with preliminary and final diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS : SWIG provides rapid intraoperative confirmation of pathologic brain tissue by permeating neoplastic or inflammatory brain tissue via a mechanism similar to that of gadolinium enhancement. SWIG-guided stereotactic biopsy can improve surgical efficiency by enhancing confidence in acquisition of target tissue.