Involvement of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor 40 in the Inhibitory Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid on SREBP1-Mediated Lipogenic Enzyme Expression in Primary Hepatocytes.


College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea. [Email]


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a frequent liver malady, which can progress to cirrhosis, the end-stage liver disease if proper treatment is not applied. Omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid, have been clinically proven to lower serum triglyceride levels. Various physiological activities of omega-3 fatty acids are due to their agonistic actions on G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and GPR120. Lipid droplets (LD) accumulation in hepatocytes confirmed that DHA treatment reduced the number of larger ( >10 μm2) LDs, as well as the total area of LDs. Moreover, DHA lowered protein and mRNA expression levels of lipogenic enzymes such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) in primary hepatocytes incubated with liver X receptor (LXR) agonist T0901317 or high glucose and insulin. DHA also decreased protein expression of nuclear and precursor sterol response-element binding protein (SREBP)-1, a key lipogenesis transcription factor. We further found that exposure of murine primary hepatocytes to DHA for 12 h increased GPR40 and GPR120 mRNA levels. Specific agonists (Compound A for GPR120 and AMG-1638 for GPR40), hepatocytes from GPR120 knock-out mice and GPR40 selective antagonist (GW1100) were used to assess whether DHA's antilipogenic effects are mediated through GPR120 or GPR40. Compound A did not decrease SREBP-1 and FAS protein expression in hepatocytes exposed to T0901317 or high glucose with insulin. Moreover, DHA downregulated lipogenesis enzyme expression in GPR120-null hepatocytes. In contrast, AMG-1638 lowered SREBP-1 and SCD-1 protein levels. Additionally, GW1100, a GPR40 antagonist, reversed the antilipogenic effects of DHA. Collectively, our data demonstrate that DHA downregulates the expression SREBP-1-mediated lipogenic enzymes via GPR40 in primary hepatocytes.


DHA,GPR120,GPR40,SREBP-1,hepatocytes,omega-3 fatty acid,

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