Ischaemic stroke as a complication of cardiac catheterisation. Clinical and radiological characteristics, progression, and therapeutic implications.

Affiliation

Departamento de Neurociencias, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, España. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND : Ischaemic stroke is the most common neurological complication of cardiac catheterisation. This study aims to analyse the clinical and prognostic differences between post-catheterisation stroke code (SC) and all other in-hospital and prehospital SC.
METHODS : We prospectively recorded SC activation at our centre between March 2011 and April 2016. Patients were grouped according to whether SC was activated post-catheterisation, in-hospital but not post-catheterisation, or before arrival at hospital; groups were compared in terms of clinical and radiological characteristics, therapeutic approach, functional status, and three-month mortality.
RESULTS : The sample included 2224 patients, of whom 31 presented stroke post-catheterisation. Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was lower for post-catheterisation SC than for other in-hospital SC and pre-hospital SC (5, 10, and 7, respectively; P=.02), and SC was activated sooner (50, 100, and 125minutes, respectively; P<.001). Furthermore, post-catheterisation SC were more frequently due to transient ischaemic attack (38%, 8%, and 9%, respectively; P<.001) and less frequently to proximal artery occlusion (17.9%, 31.4%, and 39.2%, respectively; P=.023). The majority of patients with post-catheterisation strokes (89.7%) did not receive reperfusion therapy; 60% of the patients with proximal artery occlusion received endovascular treatment. The mortality rate was 12.95% for post-catheterisation strokes and 25% for all other in-hospital strokes. Although patients with post-catheterisation stroke had a better functional prognosis, the adjusted analysis showed that this effect was determined by their lower initial severity.
CONCLUSIONS : Post-catheterisation stroke is initially less severe, and presents more often as transient ischaemic attack and less frequently as proximal artery occlusion. Most post-catheterisation strokes are not treated with reperfusion; in case of artery occlusion, mechanical thrombectomy is the preferred treatment.

Keywords

Cardiac catheterisation,Cateterismo cardíaco,Endovascular treatment,Functional prognosis,Ictus intrahospitalario,Ictus isquémico,In-hospital stroke,Ischaemic stroke,Mortalidad,Mortality,Pronóstico funcional,Tratamiento endovascular,

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