Kinetic Profile and Molecular Dynamic Studies Show that Y229W Substitution in an NDM-1/L209F Variant Restores the Hydrolytic Activity of the Enzyme toward Penicillins, Cephalosporins, and Carbapenems.


Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e Biotecnologiche, Università degli Studi dell'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy [Email]


The New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) enzyme is the most common metallo-β-lactamase identified in many Gram-negative bacteria causing severe nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to focus the attention on non-active-site residues L209 and Y229 of NDM-1 and to investigate their role in the catalytic mechanism. Specifically, the effect of the Y229W substitution in the L209F variant was evaluated by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, kinetic, and molecular dynamic (MD) studies. The Y229W single mutant and L209F-Y229W double mutant were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The Km , kcat, and kcat/Km kinetic constants, calculated for the two mutants, were compared with those of (wild-type) NDM-1 and the L209F variant. Compared to the L209F single mutant, the L209F-Y229W double mutant showed a remarkable increase in kcat values of 100-, 240-, 250-, and 420-fold for imipenem, meropenem, benzylpenicillin, and cefepime, respectively. In the L209F-Y229W enzyme, we observed a remarkable increase in kcat/Km of 370-, 140-, and 80-fold for cefepime, meropenem, and cefazolin, respectively. The same behavior was noted using the antimicrobial susceptibility test. MD simulations were carried out on both L209F and L209F-Y229W enzymes complexed with benzylpenicillin, focusing attention on the overall mechanical features and on the differences between the two systems. With respect to the L209F variant, the L209F-Y229W double mutant showed mechanical stabilization of loop 10 and the N-terminal region. In addition, Y229W substitution destabilized both the C-terminal region and the region from residues 149 to 154. The epistatic effect of the Y229W mutation jointly with the stabilization of loop 10 led to a better catalytic efficiency of β-lactams. NDM numbering is used in order to facilitate the comparison with other NDM-1 studies.


NDM,enzyme kinetics,metallo-β-lactamases,

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