Kinetic analysis of sequential metabolism of triazolam and its extrapolation to humans using an entero-hepatic two-organ microphysiological system.


Faculty of Pharmacy, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan. [Email]


The microphysiological system (MPS) is a promising tool for predicting drug disposition in humans, although limited information is available on the quantitative assessment of sequential drug metabolism in MPS and its extrapolation to humans. In the present study, we first constructed a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic model for triazolam (TRZ) and its metabolites in the entero-hepatic two-organ MPS, composed of intestinal Caco-2 and hepatic HepaRG cells, and attempted to extrapolate the kinetic information obtained with the MPS to the plasma concentration profiles in humans. In the two-organ MPS and HepaRG single culture systems, TRZ was found to be metabolized into α- and 4-hydroxytriazolam and their respective glucuronides. All these metabolites were almost completely reduced in the presence of a CYP3A inhibitor, itraconazole, confirming sequential phase I and II metabolism. Both pharmacokinetic model-dependent and -independent analyses were performed, providing consistent results regarding the metabolic activity of TRZ: clearance of glucuronidation metabolites in the two-organ MPS was higher than that in the single culture system. The plasma concentration profile of TRZ and its two hydroxy metabolites in humans was quantitatively simulated based on the pharmacokinetic model, by incorporating several scaling factors representing quantitative gaps between the MPS and humans. Thus, the present study provided the first quantitative extrapolation of sequential drug metabolism in humans by combining MPS and pharmacokinetic modeling.

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