Labeling of Microthrix parvicella in situ: A novel FRET probe based on bisoctyl rhodamine B.


School of Science, Tianjin Engineering Technology Center of Chemical Wastewater Source Reduction and Recycling, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, China; School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. Electronic address: [Email]


Filamentous bacteria, particularly Microthrix parvicella, are mainly responsible for bulking or foaming of activated sludge. Based on the affinity of M. parvicella to the hydrophobic characteristics of long-chain fatty acids, a novel bisoctyl rhodamine B (BORB) and a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) complex probe were prepared herein to study their properties. When the FRET probe was used in in situ activated sludge, M. parvicella was clearly labeled at 20 nmol/L, which was a reduction of 50 times compared to that of the BORB (1 μmol/L) alone and 500 times compared to the carbazole-quinoline probe reported previously. Compared with fluorescence in situ hybridization, M. parvicella could be clearly labeled using BORB and the FRET probe in situ without requiring complicated pretreatments (i.e., shock and broken process, fixed sample, digestion, and lysozyme treatment). This study discusses the facile approach developed for labeling M. parvicella in early warning expansion, thereby inhibiting and controlling sludge bulking in situ.


Bisoctyl rhodamine B,FRET probe,Labeling,Microthrix parvicella,Properties,