Leucocyte integrins, but neither caspases nor NLR inflammasome are associated with lipopolysaccharide recognition and response in barramundi (Lates calcarifer).


School of Biological Sciences and Centre for Marine Science, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia. Electronic address: [Email]


The inflammatory response of fish to LPS is subdued, attributed to absence of TLR4, a key pro-inflammatory receptor for LPS in mammals. Nevertheless, LPS is processed in fish in a T-independent manner and is a protective antigen in fish vaccines, yet pathways for processing LPS in fish remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that caspases and NOD-like receptor inflammasomes typically responsible for LPS recognition and processing in mammals lack critical domains or are absent in barramundi (Lates calcarifer). On the other hand, leucocyte integrins MAC-1 and LFA-1 were detected on the surface of neutrophil- and lymphocyte-like cells respectively in the barramundi spleen by immunocytochemistry, and leucocytes displaying MAC-1 or LFA-1 bound to Factor X and ESM-1 respectively. Exposure to MAC-1 and LFA-1 induced significant IL-1β expression post-stimulation with LPS compared to unstimulated and isotype controls, but the differences observed in TNF-α expression were inconclusive. Our findings implicate MAC-1 and LFA-1 involvement in immune processing of LPS in barramundi and in antigen processing in fish.