Light smoking is associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors in Chilean young adults.


Division of Child Development and Community Health, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. [Email]


OBJECTIVE : Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. While cigarette smoking is associated with MetS in adults, young adulthood is an under-studied, susceptible period for developing long-term morbidity from MetS. We examined associations between cigarette smoking and MetS risk factors.
METHODS : We studied 430 participants in Santiago, Chile who have been followed in a longitudinal cohort since infancy and assessed in adolescence for MetS. Participants were evaluated at 22 years from May 2015 to July 2017. Adiposity, blood pressure, and blood samples were measured. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. A continuous MetS score was calculated using z-scores. Participants self-reported cigarette and alcohol consumption using standardized questionnaires. We used multivariate regressions to examine associations between smoking and MetS risk factors, adjusting for sex, MetS in adolescence, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status.
RESULTS : Thirteen percent of participants had MetS and 50% were current smokers. Among smokers, mean age of initiation was 14.9 years and consumption was 29 cigarettes weekly. Smokers had larger waist circumferences, higher BMIs, and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared to non-smokers. Being a current smoker was significantly associated with higher waist circumference (β = 2.82; 95% CI 0.63, 5.02), lower HDL (β = - 3.62; 95% CI - 6.19, - 1.04), higher BMI (β = 1.22; 95% CI 0.16, 2.28), and higher MetS score (β = 0.13, 95% CI 0.02, 0.24).
CONCLUSIONS : Cigarette smoking at light levels (mean < 30 cigarettes weekly) was associated with MetS risk factors in a sample of Chilean young adults.


Cholesterol,Cigarette smoking,Metabolic syndrome,Obesity,Waist circumference,Young adult,