Lignin-based hydrogels: A review of preparation, properties, and application.


Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77840, USA. Electronic address: [Email]


Lignin as the second most abundant and the only polyaromatics-contained bio-polymer in plant has been most studied for various applications. In the past decade, the utilization of lignin for value-added materials has been extensively sought after since lignin valorization represents one of the main challenging issues of the paper industry and lignocellulosic biorefinery. Among these researches, making lignin into hydrogels has great potential for upgrading lignin into functional materials. In this review, lignin hydrogel is wrapped up with preparation strategies, properties and applications. The major cross-linking strategies to synthesize lignin-based hydrogels were reviewed first, including monomers copolymerization, crosslinking of monomers with reactive polymer precursors and polymer-polymer crosslinking. Two most important properties of mechanical and porous structures of lignin hydrogel were then discussed. More importantly, we extensively reviewed current applications of lignin hydrogel, including absorption, controlled release, smart materials for stimuli sensitive, biosensors and electrodes. These applications have paved avenues for lignin valorization. Overall, this paper covers recent advancements regarding lignin-based hydrogel and represents a timely review of this promising material.


Application,Lignin hydrogels,Preparation,Properties,