Lipid Metabolism in Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Differs from Patients Presenting with Other Dementia Phenotypes.

Affiliation

Huntington Medical Research Institutes, Pasadena, CA 91105, USA. [Email]

Abstract

Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ42) and Tau and cognitive decline are typical characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since dysregulation in lipid metabolism accompanies abnormal amyloid formation, we quantified glycerophospholipids (GP) and sphingolipids (SP) in CSF fractions from participants with late-onset AD (LOAD, n = 29) or with Other Dementia (OD, n = 10) to determine if alterations in lipid metabolism account for pathological differences. Aβ42 and total Tau levels were determined using a sandwich ELISA. Liposomal-based fluorescent assays were used to measure phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and acid or neutral sphingomyelinase (aSMase, nSMase) activities. Supernatant fluid (SF) and nanoparticle (NP) lipids were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Although CSF Aβ42 and Tau levels are similar, phosphatidylserine (PS) in SF and ceramide (CM) levels in NP are significantly higher in OD compared with LOAD. The aSMase but not the nSMase activity is higher in OD. PLA2 activity in CSF from OD subjects positively correlates with several GP classes in SF and NP fractions but not in LOAD fractions. Our data indicate differences in CSF lipid metabolism between dementia variants. Higher levels of inflammatory and apoptotic lipids may induce faster neuronal death, resulting in the earlier cognitive decline in patients with OD phenotypes.

Keywords

Tau proteins,amyloid,ceramide,cerebrospinal fluid,late-onset Alzheimer’s disease,lysophosphatidylcholine,other dementia,phosphatidylserine,phospholipase A2,sphingomyelinase,

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