Lipid emulsion therapy in women with recurrent pregnancy loss and repeated implantation failure: The role of abnormal natural killer cell activity.


Canella PRBC(1), Barini R(2), Carvalho PO(1), Razolli DS(3).
Author information:
(1)Laboratory of Multidisciplinary Research, São Francisco University, USF, Bragança Paulista, Brazil.
(2)Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Campinas University
(UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil.
(3)Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, São Francisco University, Bragança Paulista, Brazil.


Altered immune and/or inflammatory response plays an important role in cases of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and repeated implantation failure (RIF). Exacerbation of the maternal immune response through increased NK cell activity and inflammatory cytokines can cause embryo rejection leading to abortion or embryo implantation failure. Immunosuppressors or immunomodulators can help or prevent this condition. Currently, lipid emulsion therapy (LET) has emerged as a treatment for RPL and RIF in women with abnormal NK cell activity, by decreasing the exacerbated immune response of the maternal uterus and providing a more receptive environment for the embryo. However, the mechanisms by which the intralipid acts to reduce NK cell activity are still unclear. In this review, we focus on the studies that conducted LET to treat patients with RPL and RIF with abnormal NK cell activity. We find that although some authors recommend LET as an effective intervention, more studies are necessary to confirm its effectiveness in restoring NK cell activity to normal levels and to comprehend the underlying mechanisms of the lipids action in ameliorating the maternal environment and improving the pregnancy rate.