Liver transplantation for bariatric surgery-related liver failure: a systematic review of a rare condition.

Affiliation

Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Pôle des Pathologies Digestives, Hépatiques et de la Transplantation, Hôpital de Hautepierre-Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND : Protein malnutrition and bacterial overgrowth occurring after bariatric surgery (BS) might cause severe liver failure (LF) needing liver transplantation (LT).
OBJECTIVE : To evaluate indications and outcomes of LT for BS-related LF.
METHODS : University hospital in France.
METHODS : The EMBASE, MEDLINE, and COCHRANE central databases were systematically searched according to the PRISMA criteria from inception up through December 2017 for articles describing LT for LF after BS.
RESULTS : Fourteen studies reporting 36 patients listed for LT, of which 32 underwent the procedure, were retained. The types of previously performed BS included jejunoileal bypass (n = 16), bilio-pancreatic diversion according to Scopinaro (n = 14) or with duodenal switch (n = 3), bilio-intestinal bypass (n = 1), long-limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 1), and single anastomosis omega gastric bypass (n = 1). Liver failure developed a median of 20 months after BS (mean ± SD: 105 ± 121 mo; range, 5-300 mo). This interval of time was significantly shorter after biliopancreatic diversion than jejunoileal bypass (mean ± SD: 22 ± 21 mo versus 269 ± 27 mo; P = .0001). Four patients (11.1%) died while on the waiting list for LT, and 4 more (12.5%) died after LT. Morbidity and liver retransplantation were reported in 8 (25%) and 2 (6.2%) patients, respectively. Twenty-one patients (65.6%) had their BS procedure reversed (1 patient before, 15 patients during, and 5 patients after LT, respectively). Biopsy-proven steatosis recurrence after LT was reported in 6 patients (18.7%), 4 of whom did not have BS reversal.
CONCLUSIONS : Severe LF occurring after BS, although rare, might require LT. When indicated, LT is effective at restoring liver function, even when BS reversal is performed synchronously.

Keywords

Bariatric surgery,Biliopancreatic diversion,Liver failure,Liver transplantation,Malabsorption,

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