Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Pôle des Pathologies Digestives, Hépatiques et de la Transplantation, Hôpital de Hautepierre-Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. Electronic address: [Email]
BACKGROUND : Protein malnutrition and bacterial overgrowth occurring after bariatric surgery (BS) might cause severe liver failure (LF) needing liver transplantation (LT). OBJECTIVE : To evaluate indications and outcomes of LT for BS-related LF. METHODS : University hospital in France. METHODS : The EMBASE, MEDLINE, and COCHRANE central databases were systematically searched according to the PRISMA criteria from inception up through December 2017 for articles describing LT for LF after BS. RESULTS : Fourteen studies reporting 36 patients listed for LT, of which 32 underwent the procedure, were retained. The types of previously performed BS included jejunoileal bypass (n = 16), bilio-pancreatic diversion according to Scopinaro (n = 14) or with duodenal switch (n = 3), bilio-intestinal bypass (n = 1), long-limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 1), and single anastomosis omega gastric bypass (n = 1). Liver failure developed a median of 20 months after BS (mean ± SD: 105 ± 121 mo; range, 5-300 mo). This interval of time was significantly shorter after biliopancreatic diversion than jejunoileal bypass (mean ± SD: 22 ± 21 mo versus 269 ± 27 mo; P = .0001). Four patients (11.1%) died while on the waiting list for LT, and 4 more (12.5%) died after LT. Morbidity and liver retransplantation were reported in 8 (25%) and 2 (6.2%) patients, respectively. Twenty-one patients (65.6%) had their BS procedure reversed (1 patient before, 15 patients during, and 5 patients after LT, respectively). Biopsy-proven steatosis recurrence after LT was reported in 6 patients (18.7%), 4 of whom did not have BS reversal. CONCLUSIONS : Severe LF occurring after BS, although rare, might require LT. When indicated, LT is effective at restoring liver function, even when BS reversal is performed synchronously.