BACKGROUND : The long-term outcome of potential celiac disease (CD) is still a debated issue. We aimed to evaluate the progression of potential CD versus overt CD after 10-years of follow-up in a cohort of children genetically predisposed to CD. METHODS : The CELIPREV study is prospectively following from birth 553 children with CD-predisposing HLA genes. Children with a diagnosis of potential CD continued to receive a normal diet and repeated the serological screening for CD every year. An intestinal biopsy was taken in presence of persistent positive serology. RESULTS : Overall, 26 (4.7%) children received a diagnosis of potential CD (50% females, median age 24 months). All children were symptom-free. Twenty-three children continued a gluten-containing diet; at 10 years from the first biopsy, three children developed overt CD (13%), 19 (83%) became antibodies negative at 1 year from the first biopsy and remained negative up to 10 years of follow-up and one subject (4%) had fluctuating antibody course with transiently negative values and persistently negative biopsy. CONCLUSIONS : In children genetically predisposed to CD with a diagnosis of potential CD the risk of progression to overt CD while on a gluten-containing diet is very low in the long-term.