OBJECTIVE : We evaluated the long-term prognosis of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) who underwent capsule endoscopy (CE). METHODS : In our hospital, 429 patients underwent CE between November 2007 and March 2012. Among them, 259 patients underwent CE as the first examination for OGIB and were then followed at 77 clinics and hospitals. The clinical characteristics were investigated, including age, gender, overt/occult bleeding, the use of antithrombotic drugs and NSAIDs, complications (liver cirrhosis and hemodialysis), and CE. We asked the medical institutions for their survival data as of August 2017 (> 5 years after CE). RESULTS : The prognoses of 240 patients (92.6%) were analyzed. The average follow-up period was 55.7 (1-115) months. During the follow-up period, 57 patients (23.8%) died and the survival rates were 90.5% at 1 year, 81.7% at 3 years, and 74.7% at 5 years. Age 65 years or older and liver cirrhosis were predictive factors for a poor prognosis. Rebleeding occurred in 42 patients (17.9%) and small bowel cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumor were found at 12 and 21 months after CE, respectively. CONCLUSIONS : Patients with OGIB showed a poor prognosis, especially those who were elderly or who had liver cirrhosis.