Plasma phosphatidylcholines (PCs) have been examined in the context of Alzheimer's disease dementia. However, their association with longitudinal changes in amyloid deposition remains unknown. This study investigated the associations of 8 plasma PC levels (PC aa [14:0_14:0], PC aa [16:0_16:0], PC aa [16:0_18:2], PC aa [16:0_22:6], PC aa [18:0_18:0], PC aa [18:0_18:1], PC aa [18:0_20:4], PC aa [18:1_18:1]) with cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of amyloid deposition, Alzheimer's disease-associated neurodegeneration (glucose metabolism and cortical thickness), and cognition (global- and domain-specific) of 1440 cognitively unimpaired participants (47% female, aged 50.7-95.3 years) in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Longitudinally, higher baseline levels of PC aa [16:0_18:2], PC aa [18:0_18:1], and PC aa [18:1_18:1] were associated with slower decline in performance on tests of global cognition and specific cognitive domains. Furthermore, higher baseline levels of plasma PC aa (14:0_14:0) were associated with slower amyloid deposition and cortical thinning after multiple covariable adjustment (age, sex, education, medical comorbidity, dyslipidemia, statin use, and APOE4 allele presence). Our study findings support an independent association between plasma PC aa (14:0_14:0) with slower amyloid deposition and cortical thinning among cognitively unimpaired older adults.