Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment and Pollution Control, School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou, China. Electronic address: [Email]
Conventional volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring based on thermal desorption - gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) or gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (TD-GC-FID) is relatively cumbersome and expensive. In this study commercial off the shelf low-cost and low-power photo-ionization detector (PID) sensors are used as simple detectors in VOC analysis systems based on GC, including a miniaturised GC × GC device with portable, low-cost, and low-energy-consumption features. PID sensors produce a voltage signal positively proportional to VOC concentration, which when incorporated into a TD-GC system gave limit of detection of 0.02 ppbV for isoprene. To test PID performance in real-world applications, PID sensors were deployed as (i) a second alternative detector in a GC-Quadruple Time Of Flight Mass spectrometry (GC-Q-TOF-MS), and (ii) the main detector in a compact two-dimensional gas chromatograph (GC × GC). PID sensors with 10.6 eV and 11.7 eV lamps were used to measure eight toxic chemicals including organic sulfide and organic phosphonates via GC; two species were ionized by a 10.6 eV lamp and four species by the 11.7 eV lamp. Commercially available low-cost PIDs designed for standalone could be straightforwardly and effectively re-used as detectors in compact GC × GC systems, in this work showing excellent VOC sensitivity, fast response and low operational demands compared to comparable field instruments based on GC-FID or MS.