Lysine-Targeted Inhibitors and Chemoproteomic Probes.

Affiliation

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158, USA; email: [Email] , [Email]

Abstract

Covalent inhibitors are widely used in drug discovery and chemical biology. Although covalent inhibitors are frequently designed to react with noncatalytic cysteines, many ligand binding sites lack an accessible cysteine. Here, we review recent advances in the chemical biology of lysine-targeted covalent inhibitors and chemoproteomic probes. By analyzing crystal structures of proteins bound to common metabolites and enzyme cofactors, we identify a large set of mostly unexplored lysines that are potentially targetable with covalent inhibitors. In addition, we describe mass spectrometry-based approaches for determining proteome-wide lysine ligandability and lysine-reactive chemoproteomic probes for assessing drug-target engagement. Finally, we discuss the design of amine-reactive inhibitors that form reversible covalent bonds with their protein targets.

Keywords

aldehyde,chemoproteomics,kinase,reversible covalent,sulfonyl fluoride,