Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a novel radiation-free tomographic imaging method that provides a background-free, signal attenuation-free, direct quantification of the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with high temporal resolution (milliseconds), high spatial resolution (<1 mm), and extreme sensitivity (μmol). The technique is based on nonlinear magnetization of the SPIONs when exposed to an oscillating magnetic field. MPI was first described in 2001. Since then, the technique has been applied to experimental imaging of diseases affecting different organs in the human body. The aim of this paper is to review the potential applications of MPI in the field of neurosurgery.