The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a disastrous pathogen of pine forests in East Asia and Europe. Despite its decimating effect on pine forests, efficient and environmentally friendly methods available to control the pine wood nematode (PWN) are limited. The most abundant protein in nematode sperm, major sperm proteins (MSPs) have only been discovered in nematodes. In this study, phylogenetic analysis showed that BxMSP10 was highly conserved in the nematode and had a closer phylogenetic relationship with free-living nematodes than with plant-parasitic nematode species. BxMSP10 was specifically expressed in the seminal vesicle of male adults. dsRNA of BxMSP10 significantly decreased reproduction, egg hatching and population maintenance in B. xylophilus. These results indicated that BxMSP10 was a potential candidate for application in the control of B. xylophilus.