With the explosion of data in the information universe and the approaching of fundamental limits in silicon-based flash memories, the exploration of new device architectures and alternative materials is necessary for next-generation memory technology. Accordingly, emerging two-dimensional (2D) material-based memristive devices have attracted increasing attention due to their unique properties and great potential in flexible and wearable devices, and even neuromorphic computing systems. Herein, we provide an overview of the recent progress on memristive devices based on 2D materials beyond graphene. The device structures and choice of active materials and electrodes materials are summarized for various types of 2D material-based memristive devices. Following the discussion and classification on the device performances and mechanisms, the challenges and perspectives on future research based on 2D materials are also presented.