Chitosan has been made into various hemostats, but their hemostatic efficiency for controlling severe traumatic bleeding is still inadequate. The aim of this work is to make quick hemostats by incorporating mesoporous silica nanoparticles into chitosan. Porous chitosan-silica composite microspheres (CSMS-S) with high hemostatic efficacy were fabricated through a combination of the microemulsion, thermally induced phase separation, and surfactant templating method. A large number of mesoporous silica nanoparticles were formed on and within the CSMS-S microspheres, which had abundant surface and inner macropores. The synergetic two hemostatic mechanisms from chitosan and mesoporous silica nanoparticles let CSMS-S composite microspheres with proper amount of silica displayed better hemostatic potential than the single component porous chitosan microspheres (CSMS). Within a same time interval, the whole blood clotting kinetics showed that CSMS-S could form larger blood clots than CSMS. The hemostatic time of CSMS-S was down to 97 s from 114 s of CSMS in the rat liver laceration model. The cytotoxicity and histological analysis proved that CSMS-S was a safe hemostatic agent without noticeable adverse effects on tissues around the wound. Our results demonstrate that CSMS-K is a promising quick hemostatic agent for traumatic hemorrhaging control.