Mitigation of rice cadmium (Cd) accumulation by joint application of organic amendments and selenium (Se) in high-Cd-contaminated soils.

Affiliation

College of Resources and Environment, Department of Environment Science and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Chongqing, 400715, China; State Cultivation Base of Eco-agriculture for Southwest Mountainous Land, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the possible mediatory effect of organic amendments (vermicompost and biochar) and selenium (Se) on Cd bioaccumulation in both rice cultivars (high-Cd accumulation rice: Yuzhenxiang (YZX) and low-Cd accumulation rice: Changliangyou772 (CLY)) in high-Cd-contaminated soils. The results showed that Cd sensitivity and tolerance were cultivar-dependent, and grain Cd contents for CLY accorded with the Chinese national food safety standards (0.2 mg kg-1), whereas grain Cd levels for YZX were 1.4-5.8 times higher than those for CLY. Soil applications of amendments decreased grain Cd levels by 3.5%-36.9% for YZX and 36.1%-74.4% for CLY. Moreover, vermicompost (VC) was more effective in reducing Cd bioaccumulation than biochar (BC). A combination of Se and organic amendments could significantly increase grain Se contents and help further reduce grain Cd levels by 5.8%-20.8%, compared to the single organic amendments. This mitigation progress could be attributed to the changes of Cd translocation and distribution among rice tissues and the inhibition of Cd bioavailability in soil through the alteration in soil properties. Organic amendments, especially high dose (5%), increased soil pH and organic matter contents, and correspondingly decreased soil Cd bioavailability. A sequential extraction analysis suggested that organic amendments and Se facilitated the transformation of soil Cd from the bioavailable form to the immobilized Cd form, and thus decreased grain Cd levels. Hence, co-applications of organic amendments and Se in combination with low-Cd accumulation cultivar could be an effective strategy for both Se needs of humans and safe utilization of Cd polluted soil.

Keywords

Bioavailability and bioaccumulation,Cadmium,Organic amendment,Rice,Selenium,

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