Pancreatic islet cell tumours are rare in non-human primates. The majority of reported cases are benign islet cell adenomas in rhesus macaques (Macaca mullata). Here we describe a pancreatic tumour composed of both exocrine and endocrine cells known as a mixed acinar-neuroendocrine carcinoma in a captive rhesus macaque. A diagnosis of a mixed tumour requires intermingling of neoplastic exocrine and neuroendocrine cells and must be differentiated from ductal adenocarcinomas in which only the ductal component is neoplastic with interspersed normal neuroendocrine cells. Immunohistochemistry, including antibodies against cytokeratin 7 and chromogranin A, was used to demonstrate that both exocrine and endocrine neoplastic cells exhibited cellular atypia, invasion into the adjacent parenchyma and intraparenchymal metastasis consistent with a mixed malignant tumour. Expression of multiple hormones such as gastrin, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide and somatostatin was also observed throughout the neoplastic cell population, while the endocrine component of the neoplasm was predominantly positive for glucagon.