Modelling the association between deltamethrin resistance in Triatoma infestans populations of the Argentinian Gran Chaco region with environmental factors.

Affiliation

Centro de Investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas, Unidad de Investigación y desarrollo estratégico para la Defensa/ Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CIPEIN, UNIDEF/ CONICET), Juan B. de La Salle 4397, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

In Latin America, Triatoma infestans is the main vector of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease. This blood-sucking triatomine is widely distributed in the Gran Chaco ecoregion, where chemical control has failed because of the evolution of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Recently, we described a deltamethrin high resistant focus in Güemes Department (Chaco province) characterized by susceptible populations, populations with low resistance (without field control failures) and some of the populations with the highest resistance level detected. This toxicological heterogeneity could be a result of non-homogenous insecticide pressure and be influenced by environmental factors. The present study evaluated the association of deltamethrin resistance ratios (RR50s) of T. infestans populations with explanatory variables extracted from the WorldClim dataset and constructed from information of National Chagas Program actions during 2005-2015. Control actions were distributed throughout the analyzed period, representing a homogeneous selective pressure. The average percentage of total positive houses was 33.66%. Models that included temperature and precipitation indicators presented 65% explanation. When village size variables where added, the explanatory power reached 70%. This observational result suggests that the climate may favor directly or indirectly the development/selection for resistance, representing a valuable tool to understand the occurrence of resistance that could increase the Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco.

Keywords

Environmental factors,Gran Chaco ecorregion,Pyrethroid resistance,Triatoma infestans,

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