Molecular and cellular bases of diabetes: Focus on type 2 diabetes mouse model-TallyHo.

Affiliation

Internal Medicine Department, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4(th) Street, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States; Garrison Institute on Aging, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4(th) Street, MS 9424, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States; Cell Biology & Biochemistry Department, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4(th) Street, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States; Pharmacology & Neuroscience Department, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4(th) Street, MS 9424, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States; Neurology Department, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4(th) Street, MS 9424, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States; Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences Department, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 3601 4(th) Street, MS 9424, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States; Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3601 4(th) Street, MS 9424, Lubbock, TX 79430, United States. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Diabetes is a chronic lifestyle disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Diabetes is a condition where the body does not produce sufficient insulin or does not use it efficiently. Insulin resistance in diabetes or obesity causes the pancreatic β-cells to increase the insulin output. Diabetes occurs in multiple forms, including type 1, type 2, type 3 and gestational. Type 2 diabetes accounts for ∼90-95% of total affected population and is associated with both impaired insulin production by the β-cells of the pancreas and impaired insulin release in response to high blood glucose levels. Diabetes is tightly linked with genetic mutations and genetic and lifestyle activities, including diet and exercise. Recent epidemiological studies established a close link between the diabetes and progression to Alzheimer's disease. This article summarizes various molecular mechanisms involved in the developments of diabetes, including biochemical characteristics, genetic and molecular links with Alzheimer's disease, β-cell function, and factors associated with diabetes. This will help us in the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting AD in future.

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