Monitoring gas- and particulate-phase short-chain polychlorinated paraffins in the urban air of Dalian by a self-developed passive sampler.

Affiliation

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

The concentration of short-chain polychlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the urban air of Dalian, China was monitored from September 2016 to August 2017 with a self-developed passive sampler (PAS1) and an active high-volume sampler, simultaneously. PAS1 successfully collected the entire target SCCPs in the ambient air. Air SCCPs sampled by PAS1 were found be in the linear uptake stage during 181 days of sampling. Passive and active samples showed comparable congener profiles, and the dominant contributors of SCCPs in the two kinds of samples were similar. A significant linear correlation was observed between the total concentration of SCCPs sampled by PAS1 and active sampler in the four seasons. The passive sampling rates of the PAS1 for the gas and particulate phases of SCCPs were measured. The quantitative structure-property relationship of the sampling rate of PAS1 (Rair) for gas-phase SCCPs was studied. From the molecular point of view, Rair was mainly affected by the molecular weight and sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure of SCCPs. In general, SCCPs in the urban air of Dalian mainly existed in gas phase, lower molecular weight SCCPs primarily occurred in the gas phase, whereas higher molecular weight SCCPs were predominately adsorbed or absorbed on airborne particles. The air concentration of SCCPs in the four seasons were different, the correlation of the concentration of SCCPs in the air with the meteorology parameters was conducted. The exposure risk by intake air SCCPs of the residents around the sampling sites was evaluated according to the European risk assessment standards.

Keywords

Active sampling,Ambient air,Passive sampler,Passive sampling,Short-chain polychlorinated paraffins,