Mosaicism in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing.


Reproductive Biotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran; Research Institute of Animal Embryo Technology, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]


The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a rapid, simple, and often extremely efficient gene editing method. This method has been used in a variety of organisms and cell types over the past several years. However, using this technology for generating gene-edited animals involves a number of obstacles. One such obstacle is mosaicism, which is common in founder animals. This is especially the case when the CRISPR/Cas9 system is used in embryos. Here we review the pros and cons of mosaic mutations of gene-edited animals caused by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in embryos. Furthermore, we will discuss the mechanisms underlying mosaic mutations resulting from the CRISPR/Cas9 system, as well as the possible strategies for reducing mosaicism. By developing ways to overcome mosaic mutations when using CRISPR/Cas9, genotyping for germline gene disruptions should become more reliable. This achievement will pave the way for using the CRISPR technology in the research and clinical applications where mosaicism is an issue.