Muscle sympathetic nerve activity during exercise.


Research Center of Health, Physical Fitness and Sports, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan. [Email]


Appropriate cardiovascular adjustment is necessary to meet the metabolic demands of working skeletal muscle during exercise. The sympathetic nervous system plays a crucial role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure and blood flow during exercise, and several important neural mechanisms are responsible for changes in sympathetic vasomotor outflow. Changes in sympathetic vasomotor outflow (i.e., muscle sympathetic nerve activity: MSNA) in inactive muscles during exercise differ depending on the exercise mode (static or dynamic), intensity, duration, and various environmental conditions (e.g., hot and cold environments or hypoxic). In 1991, Seals and Victor [6] reviewed MSNA responses to static and dynamic exercise with small muscle mass. This review provides an updated comprehensive overview on the MSNA response to exercise including large-muscle, dynamic leg exercise, e.g., two-legged cycling, and its regulatory mechanisms in healthy humans.


Blood pressure,Leg cycling,MSNA,Sympathetic nerve activity,