Mutation spectrum of 260 dystrophinopathy patients from Turkey and important highlights for genetic counseling.


Department of Medical Genetics, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address: [Email]


We genetically evaluated 260 dystrophinopathy patients from Turkey. Karyotyping as an initial test in female patients, followed stepwise by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and by targeted next-generation sequencing of DMD revealed definitive genetic diagnoses in 214 patients (82%), with gross deletions/duplications in 153 (59%), pathogenic sequence variants in 60 (23%), and X-autosome translocation in one. Seven of the gross and 27 of the sequence variants found novel. In silico prediction, co-segregation and transcript assays supported the pathogenic nature of the novel silent (p.Lys534=) and the splice site (c.4345-12C>G) alterations. From a total of 189 singleton cases, 154 (82%) had pathogenic alterations. From 138 of those who had maternal carrier testing, 68 out of 103 (66%) showed gross and 11 out of 35 (31%) showed small pathogenic variants. This suggests that the de novo occurrences in DMD appear approximately 2.1 times more frequently in meiotic unequal crossing-over than in uncorrected replication errors. Our study also disclosed three mothers as obligate gonadal mosaic carriers. Family-based investigation of dystrophinopathy patients is crucial for the ascertainment of novel or rare variants and also for counseling and follow-up care of the families.


Becker muscular dystrophy,Duchenne muscular dystrophy,Dystrophinopathy,MLPA,NGS,cDNA,