Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens repress Th1 immune response suppression and promotes lung cancer metastasis through PD-1/PDl-1 signaling pathway.

Affiliation

Department of Pulmonary, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200030, China. [Email]

Abstract

Given one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), it is important to identify the underling molecular mechanism between development of TB and lung cancer. This study investigated the immune response to MTB infection on lung metastasis in lung cancer cells via T cell-mediated immune response. To clarify this problem, we analyzed the expression levels of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 and immune function in antigen-specific T cell as derived from MTB patients or spleen lymphocytes derived from wild-type and PD-1 knockout mice with MTB antigen stimulation and Lewis lung cancer cells injection. Our data indicate that the expression levels of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 were elevated in active pulmonary TB patients, as well as in mice received MTB and lung cancer cells treatment. We also observed the T cell-mediated cellular immune response were inhibited by MTB while MTB significantly promote tumor metastasis in lung. In conclusion, the PD-1/PD-L pathway is required MTB repressed T-cell immune response and promotes tumor metastasis. This study provides evidence that blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway may benefit patients with MTB or other chronic infection and even prevent them from development of cancer.