It has been reported that myeloid-related protein 8/14 (MRP8/14) participates in the progression of inflammation after release from neutrophils and monocytes. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism(s) of the MRP8/14-augmented inflammatory response in mice with pneumococcal meningitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) meningitis was established by intracerebral injection of SP suspension. Balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and received the following injections: phosphate-buffer saline (PBS), MRP8/14 alone, SP alone, and SP plus MRP8/14. At 6 h, 24 h and 48 h postinfection, the clinical disease status was measured by the modified neurological severity score test, body weight loss and degree of cerebral edema; mice were anaesthetized, blood samples and brain samples were collected and brain inflammation was detected by haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining; tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in serum and brain homogenates were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the mRNA levels of the above cytokines in brain homogenates were measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR); and the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 in brain tissues was determined by immunohistochemical assay. In this study, we identified that MRP8/14 substantially augmented the SP-stimulated inflammatory response, aggravated clinical disease status and exacerbated SP-induced brain edema in a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis. Exogenous administration of MRP8/14 significantly enhanced mRNA and protein expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines TNF-α, CRP, IL-6 and MCP-1 in brain homogenates and serum from mice with pneumococcal meningitis, which may be related to the NF-κB signalling pathway. We further found that MRP8/14 strongly augmented SP-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in brain tissue slices from the same model. In conclusion, our results indicated that MRP8/14 augmented the inflammatory response in mice with pneumococcal meningitis and contributed to the development of disease, which was probably through NF-κB signalling pathway activation.